New PDF release: Biology of Fibrous Composites: Development beyond the Cell

By Anthony Charles Neville

ISBN-10: 0521410517

ISBN-13: 9780521410519

This e-book tackles a huge unsolved challenge in developmental biology--how does chemistry create structure open air cells? The underlying speculation of this publication is that the fibers are oriented via self-assembly simply outdoors the cells in the course of a cellular liquid crystalline part ahead of stabilization; the writer demonstrates that the most common orientations of the fibers are plywood laminates (orthogonal and helicoidal), and as parallel fibers. ultimately, he indicates that those will be imitated within the laboratory by way of liquid crystalline chemical substances. Many effective pictures will relief the initiated in spotting a number of the forms of fibers.

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Additional resources for Biology of Fibrous Composites: Development beyond the Cell Membrane

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Chitin microfibrils; this s i the basis of our two-system (Fig. 18) model for cuticle (Neville & Luke, 1969b). The direction of chitin in the day layers usually coincides with the axis of some major component, such as a leg femur or tibia, wing vein, or antenna. It functions to counteract bending stresses. These daily changes in chitin orientation are timed by a circadian clock (Neville, 1965b). In my early papers the day layers were called 'preferred' or 'non­ lamellate' layers, and the night layers were called 'lamellate' layers.

1984) Neville & Luke (unpublished) Neville & Berg (1971) Bouligand (1965) Travis & Friberg (1963) Halcrow (1988) Halcrow (1988) Halcrow (1988) Powell & Halcrow (1985) Hadrurus arizonensis Limulus polyphemus Tegenaria agrestis Aphonopelma cha/codes Cupiennius salei Latrodectus hesperus Filshie & Hadley (1979) Neville (1967c) Neville & Luke (unpublished) Cooke, in Neville (1975a) Barth (1969, 1970) Hadley (1981) Rhinocricus nodulipes Julus sp. Orthoporus ornatus Lithobius forficatus Silvestri (1903) Neville (1975a) Walker & Crawford (1980) Neville (1975a) Copepod sperrnatophore Malacostraca Scorpionida Xiphosura Araneida Phylum Chelicerata Phylum Antennata Diplopoda Chilopoda Bate & East (1972) Rieder (1972) fluviatilis

Schmidt (1924), who had an enviable com­ mand of the use of polarizing optics. J Schmidt reasoned that this test could not consist solely of orthogonal layers of fibrils set at right angles; otherwise t n at 45• to both sets it would be possible to find a plane of secio of fibres such that these would not be disinguishable t between crossed polaroids. What he actually observed were bright and dark layers in alternation in all sections cut vertically to the sheets of fibres. Schmidt reasoned that there must be a gradual change of fibre orientation from layer to layer.

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Biology of Fibrous Composites: Development beyond the Cell Membrane by Anthony Charles Neville


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