By Vernon Cooray (auth.)
This booklet approximately lightning summarizes the essence of physics and results of lightning in a non-technical demeanour and offers an updated description of the phenomenon of lightning in uncomplicated language. beginning with the myths relating to lightning, the reader is brought to the mechanism of lightning flashes and their interactions with people, human-made platforms and Earth’s setting. many of the on hand books on lightning are written for the specialists within the box and there's a want for a e-book that introduces the undergraduate and starting publish graduate scholars to the topic of lightning and prepares them for extra complicated books intended for the specialists. This introductory ebook, that is in accordance with a sequence of lectures given to undergraduate and postgraduate scholars in electric engineering, is meant to fill this want. adapted to the wishes of college scholars who plan to review electric engineering, meteorology, environmental or easy physics, it's also a useful reference source for laymen who're drawn to understanding extra in this phenomenon.
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Extra info for An Introduction to Lightning
For negative streamers it lies in a range of 1–2 Â 106 V/m. Any variation in the electron loss processes, such as electron attachment and gas density, can change this electric field. 6 Â 105 V/m at a humidity of 18 g/cm3 [8–10]. The critical electric field necessary 16 2 Basic Physics of Electrical Discharges for streamer propagation decreases approximately linearly with decreasing air density [3, 10]. In background electric fields close to the critical value necessary for streamer propagation, streamer speed is approximately 105 m/s.
As the gas temperature in the streamer stem rises to approximately 1,600–2,000 K, rapid detachment of the electrons from oxygen negative ions takes place, and this supplies the discharge with a copious amount of electrons, thereby enhancing the ionization . , kinetic energy) decreases and the vibrational energy converts back into translational energy, thereby accelerating the heating process. As the ionization process continues, the electron density in the channel continues to increase. When the electron density increases to approximately 1017 cmÀ3, a new process starts in the discharge channel.
Let us assume that this high field region extends to a distance of r0 in front of the conductor tip. Consider a free electron created at the edge of this region, that is, at a distance of r0 from the conductor. This electron gives rise to an electron avalanche that travels toward the tip of the lightning conductor. As it travels toward the tip of the conductor, the number of electrons at the head of the avalanche increases. When the electrons reach the conductor, they are absorbed into it, leaving behind a blob of positive space charge in front of the conductor.
An Introduction to Lightning by Vernon Cooray (auth.)